The National Directorate of Security said in a statement Wednesday foreigners are also among the detainees.The IS network was behind recent suicide bombings in the Afghan capital.
Last week, an IS suicide bomber attacked a Shi'ite Muslim cultural center in Kabul, killing more than 40 people and wounding around 90 others.
The arrests in Kabul, the capital, came a day after the U.S. military said one of its soldiers was killed and four others were wounded in a 'combat engagement' in Achin, a volatile district in eastern Nangarhar province. There were no details about the attackers.
The Afghan district is known for hosting IS hideouts and journalist quote local officials as saying that Monday's attack on American forces in Achin was carried out by IS militants.